Structure Info

German Shepherd Dog








01. Paretial bone 02. Occipital protuberance  03. Frontal bone  04. Temporal bone 05. Zygomatic process
06. Cheekbone 07. Upper jawbone  08. Lower jawbone   09. Vertebrae  10. Shoulder blade
11. Humerus 12. Sternum  13. Radium  14. Ulna  15. Carpus  16. Metacarpus  17. Phalanges
18. Vertebra coccygea  19. Iliac bone (ileum)  20. Femur  21. Patella  22. Tibia  23. Fibula (calf bone)
24. Calcaneum  25. Tarsus  26. Metatarsus  27. Phalanges  28. Ribs


Proportions - Standard


The yellow line represents the height at the shoulders, which should be measured using a special rod for measuring dogs, placing the animal on a solid floor. The white line represents the total length of the trunk which the German Sheperd varies between 111% and 125% of its height at the shoulders


Cranio-facial axis


The cranio-facial axes (cranial axis AB and facial axis CD) are parallel in the German Shepherd. Any deviation from the parallelism represents a defect of varying degree. The right cranio-facial ratio is 1:1


Bearing of ears


A. Correct bearing
The ears of the German Shepherd should be medium sized, attached to the head high up and held erect. Both ears should be the same, with the pavillion forward and pointed tips.
B. Ears spaced too far apart
C. Ears too close
D. Ear with a semi-erect pavillion



A. Correct front foot
The foot should be rounded, with curved toes and the pads close together
B. Open front foot
This is a rather serious defect. The toes are spaced apart and not very curved. When moving the dog's foot does not have the elastic resting position



A. Incisors
B. Canines
C. Premolars
D. Molars

Unlike man and other animals, the teeth of the German Shepherd have an unusual feature: the lack of cement on the layer of enamel.
This is why they are always bright white (unless tartar has build up or there are traces of pharmacological substances).

Field of vision


The field of vision of a dog with a very long skull can even take in an angle of about 270°. Binocular vision is subtended by a very narrow angle, so a vision in relief is limited.
In a dog with a rounded skull the field of vision is limited to about 200°, while the angle of relief binocular vision is slightly increased